The African timeline during the BC. During 100 000 BC, human beings began to migrate from Africa to other parts of the world.
People in the Sahara Desert region have developed the use of pottery, which they employ for tools and dishes.
The Middle East’s agriculture is developing, with a focus on barley and wheat. Sheep, goats, and cattle were domesticated before the agricultural revolution. Animals began to be utilized for meat, milk, and human transportation. Donkeys were later domesticated, and the practice spread to southwest Asia.
The continent is experiencing a dry spell, which has caused the Sahara region to dry up and the population to flee.
Upper and Lower Egypt were combined into a single kingdom.
Egypt is unified into a single political unit under the leadership of Pharaoh Narmer, the kingdom’s chief administrator. This dynasty is known as the First Dynasty. Under the pharaoh’s reign, bureaucracies became increasingly centralized, with viziers, tax collectors, generals, painters, and technicians in charge. They were involved in tax collection and labor organization for significant public works projects such as the construction of irrigation systems and pyramids.
During the First Dynasty, Egypt invaded and destroyed Ta-Seti (Nubian civilization), one of the first sacred kingdoms on the Nile. Smaller sacral kingdoms persisted, but they were soon absorbed by larger kingdoms, two of which were the Kingdom of Sai and the Kingdom of Kerma. When the Hyskos invaded Egypt at the start of the country’s Second Immediate Period, the Kingdom of Kerma became one of their allies.
Around this time, the Hieroglyphic inscriptions of ancient Egypt, the world’s earliest forms of literacy, were invented.
This period is remembered for the onset of the domestication of camels by the ancient Somalis. North Africa and Ancient Egypt used this approach.
Imhotep, an architect, constructed Egypt’s first stone pyramid. It was built for King Djoser of the Third Dynasty at Saqqara. It was constructed by stacking stone layers on top of one another.
The Great Pyramids of Giza were constructed and are recognized as one of the Ancient World’s Seven Wonders.
Egypt’s First Intermediate Period begins. Power struggles and civil warfare characterized the period from the ninth to the eleventh dynasties. The territory was battled over by two power bases: Heracleopolis (Lower Egypt) and Thebes (Upper Egypt). During the eleventh dynasty, Thebes triumphed and reunited Egypt under one king.
Egypt saw the rise of the Middle Kingdom.
During this period, in southern Kenya and Tanzania, herding is a well-established practice.
In Egypt, the New Kingdom began, bringing the Second Intermediate Period to a close and ushering in one of the country’s most powerful pre-modern periods. The nation obtained control of Palestine and Nubia as a result of its political clout in the Mediterranean and Libya.
The Bantu people’s expansion began. Bantu languages originated in West Africa and spread throughout the continent, particularly in Central, Southeast, and Southern Africa. Experts estimate that there are between 250 and 525 Bantu languages in the world.
In central Nigeria, the Nok Culture, a highly centralized community of people, has emerged. Iron smelting was popular among the Nok by 500 BC, and they created art in the shape of a lifelike animal and human figurines. Although the Nok were said to have vanished by 200 BC, their influence may still be seen in the Yoruba Kingdom and Benin.
Phoenicians from Tyre found Carthage and established it. In the Mediterranean, the region has grown into a powerful trading and political force.
The Nubian Empire is established. The Kingdom of Kush invaded Egypt and conquered Thebes, presumably as a result of the Kingdom of Kerma (which revolted for years after being integrated into the Egyptian Empire). The Assyrian army later drove the Kushites out of Nubia. Later, the region became a center for cotton cloth and iron production.
The Persian invasion of Egypt was led by Cambyses II. At Pelsium in the Nile Delta, he beat the Egyptians in combat.
It was the first known pact between Carthage and Rome. It illustrates their commercial restrictions as well as their effect on the neighboring regions. The pact is the oldest evidence that Sardinia and Sicily were ruled by the Carthaginians.
Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great. He conquers Egypt, and his general, Ptolemy, ascends to the throne and establishes a dynasty. Greek culture flourished throughout Egypt under this dynasty. The Great Lighthouse of Alexandria, located in Alexandria, became one of the Ancient World’s Seven Wonders.
In the prominent region of Meroe, the Meroitic alphabet has replaced the Egyptian script. The alphabetic script, which has 23 characters, developed from Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Djenne-Djenno, a modern-day Mali town, was founded in 1920. The town is one of the world’s oldest urbanized areas. It’s linked to burgeoning markets and agriculture, particularly the domestication of African rice. The town is also recognized for being one of the first places in Sub-Saharan Africa to produce iron.
Carthage was destroyed in a series of three conflicts (collectively known as the Punic Wars) between Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Roman Province of Africa was renamed after it. The second of the conflicts (also known as the Hannibalic War) was one of the most renowned military campaigns of Hannibal, the Carthaginian general. Hannibal led his army across the Alps from Iberia to Italy. Carthage was devastated by the end of the three wars, and the remaining residents were sold into slavery, as was the tradition at the time. The Roman hegemony in northern Africa began at this point.