Global warming vastly affects the wellbeing of the people of Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the UN, there are enormous consequences of the climate changes going high by 2° C.
Continuous dependence on fossil fuel is increasing the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the air. It is also causing adverse implications to the environment and economy. Below are five effects of global warming in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Effects of Global Warming on Weather
The ever-changing weather patterns are putting Sub-Saharan Africa in a bad state. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections, the Western region will experience a significant increase in dry spells this century. Consequently, the effects of global warming in Sub-Saharan Africa are making the western parts of Botswana and Namibia to become arid. Conversely, countries in the East African region have been experiencing unpredictable floods that lead to the displacement of locals.
Impacts on Agriculture
UN states that global warming is the leading cause of droughts and crop failures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Due to climate change, most countries in Africa experience a decrease in wet spells. Along the Nile basin in Egypt, global warming is threatening the country’s grain farming and fishing. In fact, in 2008, Egyptians rioted due to a shortage of food.
Political and Economic implications
Global warming is also fueling conflicts among neighboring countries. For example, Egypt and Ethiopia have for a while been battling over the GERD dam until the 2010 Entebbe Agreement. The diminishing level of water along the Zambezi River is enormously affecting power generation at the Kariba Dam. This continues to impact business activities and mining operations in Zambia and Zimbabwe. As a result, loads of citizens in these countries are jobless, and government revenues are on the decline.
Effects on Human Health
Over 24 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa are in every year in need of humanitarian aid. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), global warming is responsible for about 150,000 deaths every year. It also goes farther to indicate that these numbers may double by 2030 if stern measures aren’t put in place. In areas that experience floods, the aftermath signifies an increase in water-borne diseases. For people living in dry areas, cases of Asthma are on the rise, and people with heart problems are more vulnerable.
Effects of Global Warming on Water Bodies
Africa has the world’s largest number of surface water bodies covering a total drainage area of 350,000km2. However, global warming is impacting these water bodies by altering the hydrological cycle, rainfall frequency, and temperature.
The effects of global warming are reducing the amount of precipitation along the Zambezi basin by up to 10%. This analogous modeling is immensely sensitive to the temporal changing of the rainy seasons. Similarly, along the Niger basin, the negative impacts of global warming are worrying. There are substantial pressures already threatening the existence of the lakes that support a ton of West African communities.
On the other hand, the Nile River is experiencing low runoff efficiency due to its high drying index. As it is, IPCC indicates a possible reduction of the Nile water by up to 70% in the future. Notably, a water source reducing by 20% can have a severe social-economic impact on those who depend on it.
In winding up, it’s crucial noting that mitigation of global warming needs joint efforts for us to make the world better. The African Union is committing African countries to limit climate change to below 2° C. However, Angola, South Sudan, and Eritrea are yet to join in this undertaking. Disputatious rules ought to be put in place and stringent penalties to be given to countries that continue polluting the air.